In humans, iron deficiency anemia during late fetal and early postnatal periods, affecting more than one billion people worldwide, causes persistent cognitive and socio-emotional behavior dysfunction. Using animal models of early-life iron deficiency, these researchers found similar impairments in neurocognitive function accompanied by widespread long-term neural gene dysregulation. To investigate molecular mechanisms by which iron regulates neural development, these researchers determine changes in gene expression and associated epigenomes at the single cell level using cutting-edge sequencing technologies. This approach will likely generate novel and testable hypotheses pertaining to molecular pathways that are persistently altered by early-life iron deficiency in the brain. Based on such insights, the researchers hope to optimize therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of early-life iron deficiency.