Project abstract for group arbefevi

Development of 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Identification

One of the essential roles of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory is to provide rapid and accurate identification of bacteria isolated from patient specimens. The conventional methods used to identify organisms rely on phenotypic characteristics such as microscopic morphology and Gram reaction, growth requirements and rate, colony morphology, and biochemical characteristics. However, some organisms are slow-growing or fastidious, or express biochemical characteristics that do not adequately fit into the pattern of a known genus or species. To identify such an isolate, a laboratory may need to resort to long incubation times, rarely used media, or methods that are not routinely available in most laboratories. Recent advances in the development of genetic methods provide additional tools for bacterial identification that supplement conventional phenotypic testing. Of these new methods of identification, the DNA sequencing-based of well characterized genes like the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the eukaryotic rRNA gene ( ITS1/ ITS2 and D1/D2 regions) for fungi can be effectively used to identify bacteria and fungi. The possibility of giving a name to an organism that could not be identified by traditional methods helps the physician not only to have a better insight into the pathophysiology of the pathogen, and the choice and duration of antibiotic treatment, but also guides clinical laboratories to perform and report appropriate antimicrobial testing.